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A Comprehensive Dictionary for web3 Terms

Are you ready to dive into the world of becoming a web3 professional? The industry is rapidly evolving, and understanding the terminology is essential for your journey. To help you enhance your blockchain knowledge, we have curated this alphabetical glossary, providing insights into basic and advanced blockchain terms.

So let's get started on your path to becoming a web3 pro!

A - Actor

An actor in the blockchain industry refers to any entity with the capabilities to participate in a specific network or perform specific actions. In the decentralized world of blockchain, actors can be individuals, organizations, or even smart contracts.


In terms of blockchain, an address represents the public identity associated with a private key. It serves as the identity of an actor or an account on the blockchain. Addresses are often presented in hexadecimal notation and are crucial for conducting transactions and interacting with decentralized applications.


An airdrop is a method of token distribution where tokens or cryptocurrencies are sent to wallet addresses. Airdrops can serve various purposes, such as marketing campaigns, incentivizing user actions like app downloads, reshares, and referrals, or rewarding community members.



When it comes to digital currency alternatives to Bitcoin, we refer to them as altcoins. Altcoins are typically derived from Bitcoin with some modifications, offering different features, use cases, or improved functionalities. Examples of altcoins include Ethereum (ETH), Ripple (XRP), and Litecoin (LTC).


Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

To combat the risks of money laundering through cryptocurrencies, international anti-money laundering (AML) laws and regulations have been implemented. These measures aim to prevent illicit activities, enhance transparency, and ensure compliance with Know Your Customer (KYC) procedures within the blockchain ecosystem.

ASIC - Application-Specific Integrated Circuit

An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is a specialized computer processing chip designed to perform a specific function more efficiently and cost-effectively than general-purpose processors. In the blockchain industry, ASIC boards are commonly used for tasks such as SHA256 hashing required for Proof-of-Work mechanisms.

API - Application Programming Interface

An API or Application Programming Interface acts as an intermediary between two software applications. It allows different applications to communicate and exchange information seamlessly. APIs play a vital role in blockchain development, enabling developers to interact with blockchain networks, retrieve data, and perform various operations.


In the virtual world, an avatar refers to the persona or identity of an individual. It represents the virtual representation of a user, which can resemble the user's physical appearance, be in the form of a cartoon, or even resemble characters found in online games.

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality (AR) is an interactive experience that overlays digital information onto the real world. It enhances our perception of reality by presenting relevant digital content in the context of our physical environment. AR technology has significant potential in various industries, including gaming, retail, education, and more.


Aping occurs when cryptocurrency traders hastily invest in a token shortly after its launch, driven by expectations of short-term profits. This behavior is akin to imitating others' investment decisions without conducting thorough research or considering the token's long-term potential. It is important to approach investments with caution and conduct proper due diligence.

Atomic Swap

Atomic swap is a process that allows the exchange of cryptocurrencies between different blockchain networks without the need for intermediaries. This peer-to-peer exchange method enables direct cryptocurrency swaps based on predetermined conditions and eliminates the reliance on centralized exchanges.


Now that we've explored some ofthe key blockchain terms from A to A, let's continue our journey through the blockchain glossary!

B - Bitcoin

Bitcoin, also known as BTC, is the first and most well-known blockchain-based cryptocurrency. It is a decentralized digital currency designed for peer-to-peer transactions. Bitcoin operates on a blockchain network and features a Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus algorithm. It leverages Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXOs) for storing transaction data securely.



A block is a fundamental component of a blockchain. It serves as a single section that contains discrete data and transactions. Blocks are linked together in a sequential manner, forming the blockchain structure. Each block typically includes a list of actions or transactions that need to be processed and added to the blockchain.

Block (Canonical)

A canonical block is a block that has been incorporated into the primary blockchain. It is referenced either directly or indirectly by future blocks. Non-canonical blocks, even if they are valid, may be rejected in favor of canonical blocks, ensuring the integrity and consensus of the blockchain network.

Block (Genesis)

The genesis block is the first block in a blockchain structure. It has a block height of zero and serves as the foundation for all subsequent blocks. All other blocks in the blockchain are intrinsically linked to the genesis block. In some cases, genesis blocks can be customized for specific purposes, such as creating test networks with different block parameters or pre-loading accounts with tokens.


Blockchain is an innovative method of storing data in discrete sections known as blocks, which are linked together in a chain-like structure. It is a decentralized and distributed digital ledger that records transactions and other digital information in a transparent and secure manner. Each block contains a cryptographic signature linking it to the previous block, ensuring the immutability and integrity of the data stored on the blockchain.


Blockchain 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

The terms Blockchain 1.0, Blockchain 2.0, and Blockchain 3.0 refer to different generations or stages of blockchain technology.

Blockchain 1.0 represents the first generation of blockchain technology, which primarily focused on executing simple token transactions. It had limited scope and capabilities beyond peer-to-peer value exchange.

Blockchain 2.0 signifies the second generation of blockchain technology. It introduced the concept of smart contracts and generalized processing capabilities. Blockchain 2.0 platforms, such as Ethereum, enabled developers to build decentralized applications (dApps) using Turing-complete programming languages.

Blockchain 3.0 represents the new generation of blockchain technology that aims to achieve better interoperability, scalability, and improved use of smart contracts. While there are no frontrunners for Blockchain 3.0 yet, several blockchain projects are actively working on addressing the limitations of previous generations.

Block Depth

Block depth refers to the position index of a block in the blockchain relative to the most recently added block. For example, if a block is two blocks before the latest block, its block depth would be 2. Understanding block depth helps in analyzing the history and current state of the blockchain.

Block Height

Block height is the position index of a block relative to the genesis block. It indicates how many blocks are present in the blockchain before a particular block. For instance, the second block added to a chain would have a block height of 2.

Block Explorer

A block explorer is a software application or graphical user interface (GUI) that allows users to explore and analyze data stored on a blockchain. It provides a user-friendly interface to browse through blocks, transactions, addresses, and other information recorded on theblockchain. Block explorers play a crucial role in transparency and accessibility, enabling users to track transactions, verify account balances, and explore the overall state of the blockchain network.

Block Reward

In blockchain networks with native cryptocurrencies, block rewards are incentives provided to miners for their contribution to the network's security and consensus mechanism. Miners who successfully add a new block to the blockchain are rewarded with a specific number of tokens. Block rewards serve as an incentive for miners to validate transactions, secure the network, and participate in the blockchain's consensus algorithm.

Bug Bounty

A bug bounty refers to a reward program offered by organizations or platforms to incentivize individuals to find and report software bugs, vulnerabilities, or flaws. In the blockchain industry, bug bounty programs help improve the security and reliability of blockchain protocols, smart contracts, and decentralized applications. Participants can earn rewards for identifying and responsibly disclosing potential security risks.

Banking Secrecy Act (BSA)

The Banking Secrecy Act (BSA) is a United States legislation passed in 1970. The BSA requires financial institutions to support government agencies in detecting and preventing money laundering activities. The act imposes certain obligations on financial institutions, such as record-keeping for all customers, determining the types of monetary instruments eligible for purchase or exchange, and mandatory reporting of specific types of transactions or activities.

Byzantine Fault Tolerance

Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) is a property of a distributed network or consensus algorithm that enables the network to reach consensus reliably, even in the presence of malicious actors. BFT assumes that no more than one-third of the network participants are malicious or faulty. This fault tolerance mechanism ensures the security and consistency of the blockchain network, even in an adversarial environment.

Blockchain Transaction Fees

Blockchain transaction fees are fees charged to users for performing transactions on a blockchain network. These fees compensate the network validators (miners or validators) for processing and confirming transactions. Transaction fees can vary depending on the network's congestion, transaction size, and the level of priority set by the user. Higher transaction fees incentivize miners to include the transaction in the next block, leading to faster confirmation times.

Bitcoin ATM

A Bitcoin ATM is a physical device that allows users to buy or sell Bitcoin and, in many cases, other cryptocurrencies as well. Similar to traditional ATMs, Bitcoin ATMs provide a user-friendly interface for individuals to convert fiat currency into Bitcoin or vice versa. Bitcoin ATMs have gained popularity globally, enabling users to access cryptocurrencies conveniently.

Buy Wall

A buy wall refers to a situation in the order book of a cryptocurrency exchange where a large limit order for purchasing a specific cryptocurrency is placed at a particular price level. The buy wall's purpose is to create a barrier preventing the cryptocurrency's price from dropping below the specified price level. It represents a significant buying interest and can indicate potential market support.


In the cryptocurrency community, a bag refers to a substantial amount of a particular cryptocurrency that an individual holds in their portfolio. Bagholders are individuals who possess a large quantity of a specific cryptocurrency. The term often implies that the cryptocurrency's value has decreased or is at risk of losing value over time. Bagholders may face challenges in selling their holdings without causing significant price slippage.

We've covered various blockchain terms from A to B, shedding light on fundamental concepts and industry-specific jargon. To continue expanding your blockchain knowledge and embark on a journey to become a skilled Solidity developer, let's explore more terms in the next section.

C - Certificate Authority (CA)

A Certificate Authority (CA) is a centralized entity or organization that plays a vital role in public-key infrastructure (PKI). CAs are responsiblefor verifying the authenticity and validity of digital certificates. They issue certificates that bind cryptographic keys to entities, such as individuals, organizations, or websites. CAs ensure trust and security in online communications by validating the identity and ownership of entities before issuing certificates.

Chain Linking

Chain linking refers to the process of transferring one cryptocurrency to another blockchain network. It involves incorporating a specific cryptocurrency transaction into two different blockchains while linking them together to achieve desired objectives. Chain linking enables interoperability between different blockchain networks, allowing assets to be transferred seamlessly across chains. This capability is crucial for creating efficient and interconnected blockchain ecosystems.

Circulating Supply

Circulating supply refers to the total number of coins of a specific cryptocurrency that are available to the public for trading. It represents the portion of the total supply that is actively circulating in the market. Cryptocurrency developers may lock, burn, or reserve some cryptocurrency tokens, making them unavailable for public trading. The circulating supply metric helps determine the market capitalization and liquidity of a cryptocurrency. It plays a significant role in assessing the value and demand for a particular digital asset.

Closed Source

Closed source refers to proprietary software that is not publicly accessible in terms of source code. Users can only access the compiled binaries in the form of executable programs, without the ability to view or modify the underlying source code. Closed-source software is typically developed by a specific organization or company and may require a license for usage.

Coinbase (Company)

Coinbase is a prominent cryptocurrency brokerage platform based in the United States. It is one of the largest exchanges in terms of transaction volume and customer base. Coinbase offers a user-friendly interface for buying, selling, and storing cryptocurrencies. While it features a limited selection of tradable cryptocurrencies compared to other exchanges, Coinbase prioritizes regulatory compliance and provides a trusted platform for crypto enthusiasts.

Coinbase (Mining)

In the context of mining, Coinbase refers to a specific transaction included in a block that rewards the miner who successfully adds the block to the blockchain. The Coinbase transaction contains newly minted tokens, often referred to as the block reward, which are sent to the miner's designated address. This transaction incentivizes miners to contribute their computational power to secure the network and validate transactions.

Command-Line Interface (CLI)

A Command-Line Interface (CLI) is a text-based interface that allows users to interact with a computer program or operating system by typing commands. In the context of blockchain development, developers often use command-line tools to compile, deploy, and interact with smart contracts, manage blockchain nodes, and perform various development tasks. CLI tools provide powerful capabilities and automation options for blockchain developers.

Consensus Algorithm

A consensus algorithm is a mechanism that enables multiple participants in a distributed network to agree on the state of the blockchain and reach consensus. Consensus algorithms ensure that all nodes in the network have a consistent view of the blockchain's history and current state. Examples of consensus algorithms include Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Stake (PoS), Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS), and Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT).


Cryptocurrency refers to digital or virtual currencies that use cryptography for secure transactions and control the creation of new units. Cryptocurrencies are decentralized and typically operate on blockchain networks. Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin are examples of well-known cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies provide an alternative to traditional fiat currencies and offer various use cases, such as peer-to-peer transactions, decentralized finance (DeFi), and digital asset ownership.


Cryptography is the practice of secure communication in the presence of adversaries. It involves techniques for encryption, decryption, and authentication to protect data and ensure confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity. Cryptography plays a vital role in blockchain technology, providing secure transaction validation, identity verification, and protection against unauthorized access.

DAO - Decentralized Autonomous Organization

A Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) is an organization or entity that operates based on smart contracts and blockchain technology without a centralized authority. DAOs are governed by a set of predefined rules and protocols, and their operations and decision-making processes are carried out through transparent and decentralized mechanisms. DAOs enable community-driven decision-making, resource allocation, and project governance.

DAG - Directed Acyclic Graph

A Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is a data structure that consists of nodes connected by directed edges and does not contain any cycles. DAGs are employed in certain blockchain platforms as an alternative to the traditional linear blockchain structure. In a DAG-based blockchain, transactions or blocks are represented as nodes,and each node references previous transactions or blocks, forming a graph-like structure. DAG-based blockchains offer advantages such as high scalability, fast transaction confirmation, and the potential for parallel processing.


Decentralization refers to the distribution of power, authority, and decision-making across multiple nodes or participants in a network. In the context of blockchain, decentralization means that the control and management of the blockchain network are shared among multiple participants, removing the need for a central authority. Decentralization enhances security, transparency, and censorship resistance in blockchain systems.

Decentralized Application (dApp)

A Decentralized Application (dApp) is an application that operates on a decentralized network, typically a blockchain. Unlike traditional applications, dApps leverage the decentralized and immutable nature of blockchain technology to provide transparency, security, and user ownership of data. dApps are often open source, and their smart contracts govern the application logic and data storage.

Decentralized Finance (DeFi)

Decentralized Finance (DeFi) refers to a rapidly growing ecosystem of financial applications built on blockchain networks. DeFi aims to recreate traditional financial systems and services, such as lending, borrowing, trading, and investing, in a decentralized and permissionless manner. DeFi protocols typically leverage smart contracts to automate financial processes and eliminate intermediaries, providing greater accessibility, transparency, and efficiency in financial transactions.

Digital Signature

A digital signature is a cryptographic technique used to verify the authenticity and integrity of digital documents or messages. It involves using a private key to create a unique signature that can be verified using the corresponding public key. Digital signatures play a crucial role in blockchain networks to ensure the non-repudiation of transactions, guaranteeing that a transaction's origin can be verified and that the data has not been tampered with.

Distributed Ledger

A distributed ledger is a type of database that is replicated and synchronized across multiple nodes or computers in a network. In the context of blockchain, a distributed ledger stores a complete record of all transactions or data blocks across the network. Each participant in the network has a copy of the ledger, and consensus algorithms ensure the consistency and integrity of the ledger. Distributed ledgers provide transparency, immutability, and resilience to tampering.

Double Spending

Double spending refers to the act of spending the same digital currency or token multiple times, exploiting the inherent digital nature of the currency. In traditional centralized systems, double spending is prevented by a central authority that maintains a centralized ledger. However, in decentralized blockchain networks, consensus algorithms ensure that double spending is not possible by validating transactions and maintaining a single version of the ledger.

DApp - Decentralized Application

A Decentralized Application (dApp) is an application that operates on a decentralized network, typically a blockchain. Unlike traditional applications, dApps leverage the decentralized and immutable nature of blockchain technology to provide transparency, security, and user ownership of data. dApps are often open source, and their smart contracts govern the application logic and data storage.

DAO - Decentralized Autonomous Organization

A Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) is an organization or entity that operates based on smart contracts and blockchain technology without a centralized authority. DAOs are governed by a set of predefined rules and protocols, and their operations and decision-making processes are carried out through transparent and decentralized mechanisms. DAOs enable community-driven decision-making, resource allocation, and project governance.

We've covered various blockchain terms from A to D, unraveling the intricacies of blockchain technology and its underlying concepts. Now, let's delve further into the blockchain glossary with terms from E to G. Expand your knowledge and become a true blockchain aficionado!

E - Ethereum

Ethereumis a decentralized blockchain platform that enables the creation and execution of smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps). It was proposed by Vitalik Buterin in 2013 and launched in 2015. Ethereum introduced the concept of a Turing-complete programming language, which allows developers to build a wide range of applications on its blockchain. Ethereum's native cryptocurrency is called Ether (ETH), and it serves as the fuel for executing smart contracts and powering the network.


ERC-20 is a technical standard for creating fungible tokens on the Ethereum blockchain. It stands for "Ethereum Request for Comments 20." ERC-20 tokens are widely used in initial coin offerings (ICOs) and tokenization of assets. The ERC-20 standard defines a set of rules and functions that tokens must adhere to, ensuring compatibility and interoperability between different applications and wallets.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM)

The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) is a runtime environment that executes smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It is a sandboxed virtual machine that provides a secure and isolated environment for running smart contract code. The EVM is responsible for interpreting and executing instructions written in Ethereum's bytecode. It plays a crucial role in the execution of decentralized applications and enables the creation of complex blockchain-based applications.


Gas is a unit of measurement for the computational effort required to execute operations or run smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. Each operation or instruction in a smart contract consumes a certain amount of gas, which is determined by its complexity and resource requirements. Gas fees are paid by users to compensate miners for the computational work they perform. Gas fees ensure the security and stability of the Ethereum network by preventing spam and resource abuse.

Gas Limit

The gas limit is the maximum amount of gas that a user is willing to pay for executing a transaction or running a smart contract on the Ethereum network. It represents the upper bound on the computational resources allocated to a transaction. Setting an appropriate gas limit ensures that the transaction or contract execution completes successfully without running out of gas. If the gas limit is too low, the transaction may fail due to insufficient gas to complete all the necessary computations.

Gas Price

The gas price is the amount of Ether (ETH) that a user is willing to pay per unit of gas for executing a transaction or running a smart contract on the Ethereum network. It represents the fee users are willing to pay to prioritize their transactions in the blockchain's mining process. Miners have the incentive to include transactions with higher gas prices, as it allows them to earn more rewards. Setting an appropriate gas price helps users determine the transaction's priority and execution speed.

Hard Fork

A hard fork is a significant and permanent divergence in the blockchain protocol, resulting in two separate and incompatible versions of the blockchain. It occurs when a blockchain's rules and consensus mechanism are modified in a way that is not backward-compatible with previous versions. Hard forks can be planned upgrades or contentious events that lead to community splits. Each version of the blockchain continues its own path, resulting in two separate networks with separate transaction histories.


A hash is a fixed-size alphanumeric string generated by applying a cryptographic hash function to input data. In the context of blockchain, hashes are used to uniquely identify blocks, transactions, or other data structures. The hash function ensures that even a slight change in the input data results in a completely different hash output. Hashes play a crucial role in blockchain's immutability and data integrity, as they allow efficient verification of data integrity without revealing the original data.

Hot Wallet

A hot wallet refers to a cryptocurrency wallet that is connected to the internet and accessible for online transactions. Hot wallets are commonly used for day-to-day operationsand allow users to quickly access their funds for trading, spending, or transferring. However, hot wallets are more vulnerable to security threats compared to offline or cold wallets since they are constantly connected to the internet. It is important to implement strong security measures, such as two-factor authentication and encryption, when using a hot wallet to protect against unauthorized access and potential hacks.

ICO - Initial Coin Offering

An Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is a crowdfunding method used by blockchain projects to raise funds for their development. In an ICO, a project or company offers investors the opportunity to purchase newly created tokens in exchange for established cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum. ICOs gained popularity during the early years of blockchain technology as a way to fund innovative projects. However, due to regulatory concerns and the prevalence of scams, ICOs have faced increased scrutiny and have evolved into more regulated fundraising methods.


In the context of blockchain, immutable refers to the property of data or information that cannot be altered, tampered with, or deleted once it is recorded on the blockchain. Blockchain's immutability is achieved through the cryptographic hashing of data and the decentralized nature of the network. Once data is added to a block and included in the blockchain, it becomes practically impossible to modify without consensus from the network participants. This immutability provides transparency, trust, and integrity to the blockchain's stored data.

Initial Coin Offering (ICO)

An Initial Coin Offering (ICO) is a crowdfunding method used by blockchain projects to raise funds for their development. In an ICO, a project or company offers investors the opportunity to purchase newly created tokens in exchange for established cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum. ICOs gained popularity during the early years of blockchain technology as a way to fund innovative projects. However, due to regulatory concerns and the prevalence of scams, ICOs have faced increased scrutiny and have evolved into more regulated fundraising methods.


Interoperability refers to the ability of different blockchain networks or systems to communicate, interact, and share information seamlessly. Interoperability enables the transfer of assets, data, or functionalities across multiple blockchains, promoting collaboration and synergy between different blockchain ecosystems. Various interoperability solutions and protocols are being developed to overcome the challenge of blockchain silos and create a connected and interoperable blockchain infrastructure.

KYC - Know Your Customer

Know Your Customer (KYC) is a regulatory process that financial institutions and companies must adhere to in order to verify the identities of their customers or clients. KYC procedures involve collecting and verifying personal information and documents to prevent fraud, money laundering, and other illegal activities. In the context of blockchain and cryptocurrencies, KYC requirements are often implemented by exchanges and platforms to comply with regulatory standards and ensure a safer and more transparent environment for users.


Lambo is a slang term often used in the cryptocurrency community to refer to a Lamborghini, a luxury sports car. It became popular during the bull market of 2017 when the price of cryptocurrencies skyrocketed, and some investors made substantial profits. The phrase "When Lambo?" is often used humorously to express the desire for quick and significant gains in cryptocurrency investments. It has since become a meme and symbolizes financial success or a sign of reaching the desired level of wealth.


A ledger is a decentralized, transparent, and append-only record that contains a complete history of all transactions or data entries in a blockchain network. Each participant in the network has a copy of the ledger, and new transactions or data entries are added to the ledger through a consensus mechanism. Ledgers provide a tamper-resistant and auditable record of all activities on the blockchain, ensuring transparency and accountability.

Lightning Network

The Lightning Network is a secondlayer scaling solution for blockchain networks, specifically designed to address the scalability limitations of Bitcoin. It enables fast and low-cost transactions by creating payment channels between users, allowing them to conduct off-chain transactions. The Lightning Network leverages the security of the underlying blockchain while significantly increasing the transaction throughput and reducing transaction fees. It is considered a key technology for enabling widespread adoption of cryptocurrencies for daily transactions.


The mainnet refers to the main blockchain network of a cryptocurrency or blockchain project. It is the live and operational network where transactions are processed, blocks are validated, and the native cryptocurrency is used. Mainnets are the culmination of development efforts and represent the fully functioning version of a blockchain network, ready for real-world usage. They are distinguished from testnets or other development networks that are used for testing and experimentation.


A masternode is a full node in a blockchain network that performs additional functions beyond transaction verification and block validation. Masternodes often provide advanced features such as instant transactions, privacy services, or decentralized governance. To run a masternode, participants typically need to hold a certain amount of the native cryptocurrency and fulfill specific requirements set by the blockchain network. Masternode operators are rewarded for their services and contribution to the network.

Merkle Tree

A Merkle tree, also known as a hash tree, is a data structure used in blockchain networks to efficiently verify the integrity of large sets of data. It organizes data into a hierarchical structure, where each leaf node represents a data block, and each non-leaf node is a hash of its child nodes. Merkle trees allow for efficient and secure verification of data by enabling the verification of a specific piece of data without needing to traverse the entire tree. They are an essential component of blockchain's data integrity and verification mechanisms.


Mining is the process of validating and adding new transactions to a blockchain network by solving complex mathematical puzzles. Miners compete to solve these puzzles and, once solved, they can add a new block of transactions to the blockchain. Mining requires significant computational power and energy consumption, and miners are rewarded with newly minted cryptocurrency or transaction fees for their efforts. Mining plays a vital role in securing the network, maintaining consensus, and processing transactions in a decentralized manner.

Multi-Signature (Multisig)

Multi-signature or multisig refers to a security feature in blockchain wallets or smart contracts that requires multiple signatures to authorize a transaction. Multisig wallets are designed to enhance security by distributing the control of funds among multiple parties. For example, a wallet may require two out of three private keys to sign a transaction, preventing a single point of failure or unauthorized access. Multisig capabilities are widely used in cryptocurrency exchanges, custody solutions, and other applications that require enhanced security measures.

NFT - Non-Fungible Token

A Non-Fungible Token (NFT) is a unique digital asset that represents ownership or proof of authenticity of a specific item or piece of content. Unlike cryptocurrencies or fungible tokens, NFTs cannot be exchanged on a one-to-one basis since each NFT has a distinct value and uniqueness. NFTs have gained significant popularity in the art, gaming, and collectibles industries, allowing artists and creators to sell and monetize their digital creations in a secure and verifiable manner.


A node refers to any device or computer that participates in a blockchain network by maintaining a copy of the blockchain's data and validating transactions. Nodes play a crucial role in maintaining the decentralization and security of the network by storing a copy of the blockchain, verifying transactions, and relaying information to other nodes. There are different types of nodes in a blockchain network, such as full nodesand light nodes. Full nodes store a complete copy of the blockchain, while light nodes only store a subset of the blockchain's data. Nodes work together to maintain the integrity and consensus of the blockchain network.

Open Source

Open source refers to software or projects that are freely available and allow anyone to view, modify, and distribute their source code. Open-source projects foster collaboration, transparency, and community-driven development. In the blockchain space, many protocols and platforms are open source, enabling developers to contribute, audit, and customize the software according to their needs. Open-source blockchain projects benefit from peer review, security audits, and the collective knowledge of the developer community.


Oracles are third-party services or systems that provide external data to smart contracts on the blockchain. Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with predefined rules, but they lack the ability to access data from outside the blockchain. Oracles act as bridges between the blockchain and real-world data sources, enabling smart contracts to interact with real-time information such as stock prices, weather data, or sports scores. Oracles play a crucial role in expanding the functionality and use cases of smart contracts.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

Peer-to-peer (P2P) refers to a decentralized network architecture where participants can interact and exchange information directly without intermediaries. In a P2P network, each participant (or peer) has the same capabilities and acts both as a client and a server, allowing for direct communication and data sharing. Blockchain networks, including Bitcoin and Ethereum, operate on a P2P model, where nodes connect and communicate with each other to validate transactions, maintain consensus, and propagate information across the network.

Private Key

A private key is a cryptographic code that grants ownership and access to specific assets, such as cryptocurrencies, stored in a blockchain address. It is a randomly generated string of characters and serves as a digital signature for authorizing transactions. Private keys must be kept secret and securely stored, as anyone with access to the private key can control the associated assets. Losing or compromising a private key can result in permanent loss of access to the assets stored in the corresponding address.

Proof of Stake (PoS)

Proof of Stake (PoS) is a consensus mechanism used in blockchain networks to achieve agreement on the state of the blockchain and validate transactions. Unlike the energy-intensive Proof of Work (PoW) mechanism used in Bitcoin, PoS selects validators based on their ownership or "stake" in the network's native cryptocurrency. Validators are chosen to create new blocks and secure the network based on their stake. PoS is designed to be more energy-efficient and secure, as it requires validators to have a financial interest in the network.

Proof of Work (PoW)

Proof of Work (PoW) is a consensus mechanism used in blockchain networks to achieve agreement on the state of the blockchain and validate transactions. Miners compete to solve complex mathematical puzzles, requiring significant computational power and energy consumption. Once a miner solves a puzzle, they can add a new block of transactions to the blockchain. PoW is designed to be secure and resistant to attacks, as it requires a significant amount of computational effort to modify past blocks. Bitcoin and Ethereum currently use PoW as their consensus mechanism.

Public Key

A public key is a cryptographic code derived from a private key and is used to receive funds or verify signatures in a blockchain address. It is mathematically linked to the private key but cannot be used to determine the private key. Public keys are widely shared and visible on the blockchain, allowing users to send funds to a specific address or verify that a signature corresponds to the associated private key. Public keys play a crucial role in facilitating secure and transparent transactions on the blockchain.

Smart Contract

A smart contract is a self-executing contract with the terms and conditions directly written into the code. Smart contracts automatically enforce and execute the agreed-upon rules without the need for intermediaries. They are built on blockchain platforms and enable trust, transparency, and automation in various industries and applications. Smart contracts have the potential to revolutionize traditional business processes by eliminating the need for intermediaries, reducing costs, and increasing efficiency.


Solidity is a programming language specifically designed for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It is a statically-typed, high-level language that allows developers to define the behavior and rules of smart contracts. Solidity is similar to popular programming languages like JavaScript and C++ and provides features such as inheritance, libraries, and complex data structures. Solidity code is compiled into bytecode and deployed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) for execution.


In the context of blockchain, a token refers to a digital asset or representation of value that exists on a blockchain. Tokens can represent various types of assets, including cryptocurrencies, digital collectibles, or access rights to a specific service or platform. Tokens are created and managed through smart contracts and can be transferred, traded, or utilized within their respective blockchain ecosystems. Tokens have gained significant attention in the blockchain space due to their potential for creating new economic models and enabling decentralized applications.


A wallet is a software application or device used to store, manage, and interact with cryptocurrencies. Wallets store the user's private keys and enable them to securely send, receive, and monitor their cryptocurrency holdings. Wallets can be categorized into two main types: hot wallets and cold wallets. Hot wallets are connected to the internet and provide easy accessibility, while cold wallets are offline and offer enhanced security by keeping the private keys offline.


web3 refers to the next generation of the internet that aims to enable decentralized and peer-to-peer interactions through blockchain technology. web3 applications leverage blockchain's transparency, immutability, and smart contracts to create trustless systems and enable new economic models. web3 encompasses various technologies, including decentralized finance (DeFi), non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and decentralized applications (DApps). It envisions a future where individuals have full control over their data, digital assets, and online interactions.

In conclusion, understanding key blockchain terms is crucial for anyone interested in becoming a web3 professional. This alphabetical blockchain guide provides you with a comprehensive overview of essential terms, from actors and addresses to tokens, wallets, and web3. By familiarizing yourself with these terms, you'll gain a solid foundation for exploring more advanced concepts.

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